"Pilate answered, 'What I have written, I have written'"
                                                            John 19:22

Writing Style Guidelines


Footnotes are used to give credit to sources of any material borrowed, summarized or paraphrased. They are intended to refer readers to the exact pages of the works listed in the Bibliography section.

Footnotes are placed numerically at the foot of the very same page where direct references are made.

If you are using Microsoft Word as your word processor, to type a footnote citation, simply hold down the Ctrl and Alt buttons and then type “f.” This should automatically insert a superscripted footnote in your text, and then automatically moves the curser to the bottom of the page (in Print Layout View) or to a Footnotes Box (in Normal View), where you can type in the footnote itself.

When mentioning a work for the first time, a full and complete footnote entry must be made.

NOTE: Only one “sentence” is used in a footnote citation, i.e., only one period or full stop is used at the end of any footnote citation. In a bibliography, each citation consists of a minimum of three statements or “sentences,” hence each entry requires a minimum of three periods, e.g., a period after the author statement, a period after the title statement, and a period after the publication statement (publication/publisher/publication date).

First footnote example:

            2 G. Wayne Miller, King of Hearts: The True Story of the Maverick Who Pioneered Open Heart Surgery (New York: Times Books, 2000) 245.

Bibliography example:

            Miller, G. Wayne. King of Hearts: The True Story of the Maverick Who Pioneered
            Open Heart Surgery. New York:      Times Books, 2000.

For footnote citations, some writers still use ibid. (abbreviated from the Latin ibidem meaning “there the same”) for the second mention of the same work with no intervening entries:


                3 Ibid. 12-15.

More commonly, author and page numbers are now used instead of ibid., e.g.:


                4 Miller 160.

For second or later mention of the same work with intervening entries, where previously op. cit. was used, now:


                5 Miller 198.
Other examples

            1 Alan Dundes, “Taboo,” World Book Encyclopedia, 2000 ed.

                2 “Taboo,” Occultopedia: Encyclopedia of Occult Sciences and Knowledge, Site created and designed by Marcus V. Gay, 12 Apr. 2001 <http://www.occultopedia.com/t/taboo.htm>.

                3 Mary Douglas, “Taboo,” Man, Myth & Magic, ed. Richard Cavendish, new ed., 21 vols. (New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1994) 2546.

                4 Douglas 2549.

                5 Kelly Rothenberg, “Tattooed People as Taboo Figures in Modern Society,” 1994-2001, BME/PsyberCity, Inc., 12 Apr. 2001 <http://bme.freeq.com/tatoo/tattab.html>.

                 6 Frank van Ree, “Abuse by Definition? The Taboo as Excuse,” 12 Apr. 2001 <http://www.humanbeing.demon.nl/ipceweb/Library/vanreekoin25_taboe.htm>.

                 7 Marvin Harris, “The Cultural Ecology of India’s Sacred Cattle,” Current Anthropology 7 (1992) 51-66 (quoted in McGrath).

It is best to allow Microsoft Word to format the footnotes. If you are formatting them yourself, tab, or indent footnote entries ½ inch (or if you have not yet figured out how to use your ruler effectively, 5 spaces) from the left margin. Leave one space between the superscript number and the entry. Generally, it is not considered to be an error if no space is left provided the writer is consistent. Do not indent second and subsequent lines. Double-space between entries. Number footnotes consecutively using a superscript, e.g., 7.


Examples of first footnotes, subsequent footnotes, and listings on "Works Cited" page:


Example in text:


"The Catechism of the Catholic Church states that “Because of its common origin the human race forms a unity, for ‘from one ancestor [God] made all nations to inhabit the whole earth.’”9

Example of a first footnote citation for the above quote from Catechism of the Catholic Church, Part I, Section 2, Chapter 1, Article 1, Paragraph 6I, Reference #360, Page 103, would be:  

9 Catechism of the Catholic Church (New York: Doubleday, 1994) 360.

Subsequent citation of this same quote:  

                10 Catechism 360.

Citation of a different quote from the same book: 
                11 Catechism 1499.

 List under Works Cited:

                 Catechism of the Catholic Church. New York: Doubleday, 1994.

 Examples of other footnote citations:

                 12 Pius XII, encyclical, Summi Pontificatus 3.
                 13 Roman Catechism I, 10, 24.


Do not confuse footnote citations with explanatory notes that some authors refer to as “Endnotes.” These notes are not considered to be citations but are used to add comments, explanations, or additional information relating to specific passages in the text.


Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts:


Example in text:


An interesting reference was made to the picking of corn on the Sabbath.8

 Example of footnote citation, long form:

                 8 Matthew 12:1-8.

 Example of footnote citation, short form:

                 8 Matt 12:1-8.

List under Works Cited:

                 The New Jerusalem Bible: Reader’s Edition. New York: Doubleday, 1990.


Works Cited

Works Cited and Bibliography are not the same. In Works Cited you only list items you have actually cited. In a Bibliography you list all of the material you have consulted in preparing your essay whether or not you have actually cited the work. For purpose of an exegesis, I am only interested in works actually cited in the text.

Entries in Works Cited are put in alphabetical order by last names of authors, editors, translators, etc. or by first words of titles.

If the first word of the title is “The”, “A”, or “An”, and the word is being used as an article, e.g., in the title: The Little Book of Irish Clans, the entry is placed under “Little” and the article “The” is ignored. In the title: A is for Apple, however, the entry is placed under A since A is used as a noun and not as an article in this case.

Sometimes the article “The” is used as part of the name of a company or magazine or journal for emphasis, e.g., The Champ, or The Sports Network. For Internet sites, use the URL as a guide. If “theyellowpages” is used in the URL, treat “The” as part of the title, and list “The Yellow Pages” alphabetically under “The”. If “edge” and not “theedge” is used in the URL, list the magazine title “The Edge” under “Edge” and treat “The” as an article and ignore it.

Note to remember:

1.                  Do not number entries.

2.                  Do not list citations separately by categories. All references are placed in one alphabetical list by first words of citations, regardless of where citations come from.

3.                  Begin on a new page. Start 1inch down from the top of the paper (or on the 6th line from the top), center, and type Works Cited. Quadruple space after the title. List all entries in alphabetical order by the first word, taking into consideration the rules governing titles that begin with articles.

4.                  Begin the first line of each entry flush at the left margin. Keep typing until you run out of room at the end of the line. Indent 5 spaces for second and subsequent lines of the same entry. Single-space for lines in the same entry. Double-space between entries.

Works Cited, References, or Bibliography Sample Page

Works Cited

Agee, Joel. “German Lessons: When Home Is Not Where the Homeland Is.” Harper’s Magazine Feb. 2001: 68-74.

 Alexander Graham Bell. CD-ROM. Sydney, NS: Fitzgerald Studio, 1996.

 Auletta, Ken. World War 3.0: Microsoft and Its Enemies. New York: Random House, 2001.

 “Beginner Tip: Presenting Your Page with Style.” Webmaster Tips Newsletter. July 2000. NetMechanic. 12 Feb. 2001 <http://www.netmechanic.com/news/vol3/beginner_no7.htm>.

 Blanchard, Kenneth H., et al. High Five! The Magic of Working Together. New York: HarperCollins Publishers Inc., 2001.

 Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” The Daily Telegraph [London] 25 Jan. 2001: 36.

 Crane, Nancy. Electronic Sources: MLA Style of Citation. 29 Oct. 1997. 24 Feb. 2001 <http://www.uvm.edu/~ncrane/estyles/mla.html>.

 “E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” The Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001:4.

 Gilbard, Jeffrey P. “What is Dry Eye?” TheraTears. Advertisement. 6 Feb. 2001. 2 Sept. 2001 <http://www.theratears.com>.

 Hannibal. Dir. by Ridley Scott. Prod. by Dino De Laurentiis, Martha De Laurentiis, and Ridley Scott. Screenplay by David Mamet and Steven Zaillian. Music by Hans Zimmer. Perf. Anthony Hopkins and Julianne Moore. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures and Universal Pictures, 2000.

 “Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1999-2000. Britannica.com Inc.2 Sept. 2001 <http://www.britannica.com>.

 “I Am an Army of One.” U.S. Army. Advertisement. Popular Science. Mar. 2001: 1.

 Lake, Matt. “Best Free Stuff Online.” PC World Mar. 2001: 92+.

 Law and Order. Prod. Wolf Film in assoc. with Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 25 Feb. 1998.

 Li, Xia. Electronic Sources: MLA Style of Citation. 26 July 1996. 8 May 1999  <http://www.uvm.edu/~xli/reference/mla.html>.

 --- and Nancy B. Crane. Electronic Sytle: A Guide to Citing Electronic Information. Westport, CT: Meckler Publishing, 1993.

 Longin, Helmut. President. Industry Union of Austria. Telephone interview. 12 Oct. 2001.

 Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” National Geographic.com. 9 Feb. 2001. 2 Sept. 2001 <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/02/0209_mandela.html>.

 Mitchell, Joni. Both Sides Now. CD. Reprise Records, Time Warner Company. Distributed by Warner Music Canada Ltd., Scarborough, ON, 2000.

 “Mug.” Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language. Canadian ed. 1988.

 “Nazi Party”. New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1997 ed.

 Nielsen, Jerri and Maryanne Vollers. Ice Bound: A Doctor’s Incredible Battle for Survival at the South Pole. New York: Hyperion, 2001.

 The Nutcracker. By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. The National Ballet of Canada. Hummingbird Centre for the Performing Arts, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999.

 Penny, Nicholas B. “Sculpture, The History of Western.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1998 ed.

 Phillips, David. Blame It on the Weather: Strange Canadian Weather Facts. Toronto: Key Porter Books Limited, 1998.

 PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to I. Lee. 12 Oct. 2001.

 RAMeSize. Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Nov. 2000          <http://www.pcworld.com/downloads/file_download.asp?fid=7605>.

 Romey, Kristin M. and Mark Rose. “Saga of the Persian Princess.” Archaeology Jan./Feb. 2001: 24-25.

 Schrock, Kathy. “S.O.S. -- Help for Busy Teachers (Site 03) September Events.” E-mail to DCS-SCHROCK@LISTS.DISCOVERY.COM. 2 Sept. 2001.

 Schubach, Erik. “Bugs Bunny.” Cartoon. Cartoon World! 1998. 12 Oct. 2001          <http://www.cet.com/~rascal/graphics/bugsbun.gif>.

 “Thanks a Bunch!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts. 2000. Kersten Brothers Studios. 13 Oct. 2001 <http://www1.bluemountain.com/eng3/kersten/TUbunch.html>.